Nanyang Technological University, Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science

Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Dr, Singapore 637553 Singapore

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Hard Pollen: “Practically Indestructible Materials”

Pollen represents one of nature’s most durable materials, which can be easily obtained at low cost. We explore pollen as a natural alternative to polymer synthesis and focus our research on pollen processing and utilizing pollen-based materials in various fields such as drug delivery, food technology, tissue engineering, and beyond.  


Fan TF*, Hwang Y*, Potroz MG, Tan EL, Lau KL, Tan EL, Ibrahim MS, Miyako E, Cho NJ

(* denotes equal first authors)

"Degradation of the Sporopollenin Exine Capsules (SECs) in Human Plasma."

Applied Materials Today, Accepted.


Fan TF, Potroz MG, Tan EL, Ibrahim MS, Miyako E, Cho NJ

"Species-Specific Biodegradation of Sporopollenin-Based Microcapsules."

Scientific Reports 2019; 9, 9626.



Fan TF , Potroz MG, Tan EL, Park JH, Miyako E, Cho NJ

"Human Blood Plasma Catalyses the Degradation of Lycopodium Plant Sporoderm Microcapsules."

Scientific Reports 2019; 9, 2944.



Prabhakar AK, Potroz MG, Tan EL, Jung H, Park JH, Cho NJ

"Macromolecular Microencapsulation using Pine Pollen: Loading Optimization and Controlled Release with Natural Materials."

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2018; 10(34), 28428-28439.



Prabhakar AK, Potroz MG, Park S, Miyako E, Cho NJ

 Cover Illustration 

"Spatially Controlled Molecular Encapsulation in Natural Pine Pollen Microcapsules." 

Particle & Particle Systems Characterization 2018; 35(9), 1800151

Supporting Information


Fan TF, Park JH, Pham QA, Tan EL, Mudargi RC, Potroz MG, Jung HR, Cho NJ

"Extraction of Cage-Like Sporopollenin Exine Capsules from Dandelion Pollen Grains."

Scientific Reports 2018; 8, 6565.


Tan EL, Potroz MG, Ferracci G, Jackman JA, Jung HR, Wang L, Cho NJ

 Cover Illustration 

"Light‐Induced Surface Modification of Natural Plant Microparticles: Toward Colloidal Science and Cellular Adhesion Applications."

Advanced Functional Materials 2018: 28(18), 1707568.

Supporting Information


Corliss MK, Bok CK, Mundargi RC, Gillissen JJ, Potroz MG, Jung HR, Tan EL, Cho NJ

"Preserving the Inflated Structure of Lyophilized Sporopollenin Exine Capsules with Polyethylene Glycol Osmolyte."

Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2018; 61, 255-264


Wang H, Potroz MG, Jackman JA, Kherzi B, Cho NJ, Pumera M

 Cover Illustration 

"Bioinspired Spiky Micromotors Based on Sporopollenin Exine Capsule."

Advanced Functional Materials 2017; 27(32), 1702338.

Supporting Information


Prabhakar AK, Ying H, Potroz MG, Corliss MK, Park JH, Mundargi RC, Cho DH, Bang SI*, Cho NJ*

(* denotes equal corresponding authors)

"Chemical Processing Strategies to Obtain Sporopollenin Exine Capsules from Multi-Compartmental Pine Pollen."

Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2017; 53, 375-85.


Potroz MG, Mundargi RC, Gillissen JJ, Tan EL, Meker S, Park JH, Jung HR, Park S, Cho DH, Bang SI*, Cho NJ*

(* denotes equal corresponding authors)

 Cover Illustration 

"Plant-based Hollow Microcapsules for Oral Delivery Applications: Towards Optimized Loading and Controlled Release."

Advanced Functional Materials 2017; 27(31), 1700270.

Supporting Information


Wang L, Jackman JA, Tan EL, Park JH, Potroz MG, Hwang ET, Cho NJ

"High-Performance, Flexible Electronic Skin Sensor Incorporating Natural Microcapsule Actuators."

Nano Energy 2017: 36, 38-45.


Potroz MG, Mundargi RC, Park JH, Tan EL, Cho NJ

"Extraction of Plant-Based Capsules for Microencapsulation Applications." 

Journal of Visualized Experiments 2016; 117, e54768.


Park JH, Seo JE, Jackman JA, Cho NJ

"Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen." 

Scientific Reports 2016; 6, 28017.

Supporting Information


Seo JE*, Wang L*, Ng WB, Cho NJ

(* denotes equal first authors)

"Preparation of Highly Monodisperse Electroactive Pollen Biocomposites." 

Chemistry of Nanomaterials for Energy, Biology and More 2016; 2(5), 414-418. 

Supporting Information


Mundargi RC, Potroz MG, Park JH, Seo JE, Lee JH, Cho NJ

"Extraction of Sporopollenin Exine Capsules from Sunflower Pollen Grains." 

RSC Advances 2016; 6(20), 16533-16539.


Mundargi RC, Potroz MG, Park S, Park JH, Shirahama H, Lee JH, Seo JE, Cho NJ

 Cover Illustration 

"Lycopodium Spores: A Naturally Manufactured, Superrobust Biomaterial for Drug Delivery." 

Advanced Functional Materials 2016; 26(4), 487-497. 

Supporting Information


Mundargi RC, Tan EL, Seo JE, Cho NJ

"Encapsulation and Controlled Release Formulations of 5-Fluorouracil from Natural Lycopodium Clavatum Spores." 

Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2016; 36, 102-108.

Supporting Information


Mundargi RC, Potroz, MG, Park JH, Seo JE, Tan EL, Lee JH, Cho NJ

"Eco-Friendly Streamlined Process for Sporopollenin Exine Capsule Extraction." 

Scientific Reports 2016; 6, 19960.

Supporting Information


Wang L, Ng WB, Jackman JA, Cho NJ

 Cover Illustration 

"Graphene-Functionalized Natural Microcapsules: Modular Building Blocks for Ultrahigh Sensitivity Bioelectronic Platforms." 

Advanced Functional Materials 2016; 26(13), 2097-2103. 

Supporting Information


Mundargi RC, Potroz MG, Park S, Shirahama H, Lee JH, Seo JE, Cho NJ

"Natural Sunflower Pollen as a Drug Delivery Vehicle." 

Small 2016; 12(9), 1167-1173.

Supporting Information

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